Review Article

Hatibzâde Muhyiddin Efendi’nin Hâşiye ˓ale’l-Mukaddimâti’l-erba˓a Adlı Hâşiyesinin Tahkik ve Tahlili


The study aims to examine the hâshiyah called “Ĥāshiyah ˓alā al-Muqaddimāt al-Arba˓a”, which belongs to Khatībzādah Muĥyī al-Dīn Effendi (d. 901/1496). In addition, it is aimed to make this ĥāshiyah, which has not been critical edited yet, to be brought to the literature by making a critical editing. In addition to this, the study will also deal with the copies (nusakhs) of the ĥāshiyah, the life of the author and many issues related to the ĥāshiyah. This Ĥâshiyah ˓alā al-Muqaddimāt al-Arba˓a written by Khatībzādah is an annotation (ĥâshiyah) to Taftāzānī’s work of al-Talvīĥ which Taftāzānī (d. 792/1390) wrote al-Talvīĥ as an annotation to Śadr al-Sharī˓a’s (d. 747/1346) al-Tankīĥ. al-Muqaddimāt al-Arba˓a ĥāshiyahs, which were handled by the competent scholars of the period as a result of Mehmed the Conqueror’s request and attempt, for the evaluation and comparison of Śa˓d al-Dīn al-Taftāzānī and Śadr al-Sharī˓a al-Thānī through al-Tavżīĥ and al-Talvīĥ books, have an important place in the Ottoman thought tradition. In this literature, which examines the issue of ĥusn - qubĥ and human actions as a whole, the psychological and metaphysical foundations of human actions and actions are examined. Khatībzādah’s Ĥāshiyah ˓alā al-Muqaddimāt al-Arba˓a, which is the subject of the study, is also remarkable in many unique ways. Khatībzādah emphasizes Ash˓arī (d. 324/935-36) and Ash˓arism on the subject. Probably in connection with this, he does not make any reference to or mention the Ĥanafī and Māturīdism schools. Khatībzādahaims to base the Ash˓arī school’s approach on this issue on the authority names of the Ash˓arī school. In the final analysis, Khatībzādah has a common opinion with Taftāzānī about the four premises. Khatībzādah, like Taftāzānī, argues that the four prefaces can be reduced to two premises. First, the difference between the voluntary and the obligatory acts of man is self-evident, and therefore it is meaningless to prove the obvious. Secondly, the statement of predecessor scholars that “there is neither jabr nor tawfīż” proves that man is a responsible being. Khatībzādah presents an approach to both human actions and the relationship between God and human in terms of God. According to Khatībzādah, what is required of a person regarding actions is to confess his helplessness before God and to refer everything to his creator. Because man has no other alternative to the greatness of God. In this case, a person cannot reach the majesty and holiness of God in any way, while he is not aware of even his closest actions. That is why it is impossible for a person to reach the truth of destiny with his mind or thought. Here, the most suitable situation for a human being is to submit to fate, to beg to God by feeling a sense of amazement and disbelief in the face of God’s beauty and majesty. In the most general sense, Khatībzādah adopted the al-jabr al-mutawassıŧ of Ash˓arism and the four propositions that Śadr al-Sharī˓a developed about the occurrence of human actions were not accepted.


Kalām al-Muqaddimāt al-Arba˓a Khatībzādah Muĥyī al-Dīn Effendi Śa˓d al-Dīn al-Taftāzānī Śadr al-Sharī˓a al-Thānī.