Critical Edition, Examination and Translation of The Risālah of Sheikh Shaʿbān al-Mudurnavī al-Naqshbandī’s Entitled Risālah fī al-Qaḍā wa al-Qadar


The article will examine how one of the Naqshbandī sheikhs and XVI. century Ottoman author Sheikh Shaʿbān al-Naqshbandī (d. 1003/1593) resolved the paradox between the freedom of human actions and God’s creation in his this risālah. In addition, it is aimed to bring the risālah to the literature by making the critical edition and translation. It is known that the issue of destiny on the subjects related to the action and free will of man, which is the content of the risālah, is discussed by the disciplines of Kalām, Islamic philosophy and Sufism in the context of original ontological and epistemological perspectives. The risālah of Sheikh Shaʿbān on destiny, which we have received as a subject of the study, has been examined from a mystical point of view, compared to these disciplines in question. Sufism sources used in the risālah, the method of ‟kashfī-dhawqī” knowledge followed, and the isharī interpretation of the verses confirm this. Sheikh Shaʿbān put forward the basic principles of knowledge and existence on this subject, such as knowledge is subject to the known and existence is essential, which has an important place in Islamic thought. After revealing the general approaches on the subject, he puts forward a mystical approach on the subject of fate through kashfī and dhawqī knowledge. It is seen that Sheikh Shaʿbān Efendi, who tried to base destiny and human freedom on the basic theories of the tradition of wahdat al-wujūd, on the al-ḥaḍarāt al-khamsah and al-aʿyān al-s̱ābitah, also benefited from Ibn Arabī (d.638 / 1240). Sheikh Shaʿbān says that although everything is known by Allah beforehand, it does not force people to do compulsion, that is, to act. Because the knowledge of God is subject to what is known. He also claims that the al-aʿyān al-s̱ābitah as eternal archetypes with their attributes together were created by God, and that it does not require force.


Kalām Taṣawwuf Qaḍā Qadar Free will al-Aʿyān al-s̱ābitah Sheikh Shaʿbān.